Drug that inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is an enzyme
needed in the production of peptide angiotensin II, causing arteries to constrict,
raising blood pressure. ACE inhibitors lower blood pressure by the inhibition
formation of angiotensin II, relaxing arteries and lowering blood pressure.
Neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory function.
Used in the control of sensory input signals and muscular control. ACh
is a stimulatory neurotransmitter, when released by muscle nerves, muscles
contract. It is made from the precursor nutrient choline and there is
some evidence that increased dietary choline can increase production
and use of acetylcholine.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Disease which progressively destroys central portion of the retina,
known as the macula. It is the leading cause of vision loss in people
aged 50 and over in the Western World. It is noted that about 30-million
people throughout the world are thought to suffer from the condition.
There are two known types of AMD - the wet type and the milder and more
common dry type.
An agent which stimulates or increases secretion from a specific
Known as SDAT (senile dementia Alzheimer's type). Disease is
characterized by general loss of mental qualitative ability and impairment
of memory, judgment, abstract thinking, as well as changes in personality.
Symptoms include loss of speech, disorientation and apathy. Alzheimer's
disease is the most common cause of dementia, rarely occurring before
the age of 50.
An organic acid containing the amine (ammonia-like) chemical
group in its make up. Amino acids are put together by your body in highly
specific ways to manufacture proteins.
Acetyl L-Carnitine is a naturally occurring nutrient in the body- that
transports fats into the mitochondria. Studies show that it may help in
the protection of the brain by nourishing NMDA-sensitive glutamate receptors-
that normally decline with age. ALC has also been shown to help prevent
the formation of lipofuscin or age spots, a potassium pigment, to increase
cerebral blood flow.
Anti Aging Role:
Anti-aging benefits may include protection of the brain
from signs of aging, possible improvement of memory with long-term use,
increased attention and vitality, and protection and treatment of senile
dementia. Studies confirm that ALC can reduce both lipid peroxidation
and lipofuscin concentration in brain cells. Some research notes that
ALC supplementation can be helpful in the management of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
ALC is distributed in 250mg and 500mg tablets, and
has been known to be administered in oral liquid form. Pharmaceutical
trade name preparations include Branigen, Ceredor, Nicetile, Normobren
and Zibren. Follow instructions on packaging.
Maximum Dosage: 1500mg per day
Side effects may include nausea, headache, dizziness
or vomiting when starting treatment or at increased dosages. Those with
kidney or liver disease should consult their doctor before taking supplementary
Arginine is known as a non-essential amino
acid that the body can synthesize in the liver, but in times of stress
or trauma it becomes an essential amino acid. Arginine is naturally
found in beans, brewer’s yeast,
dairy products, eggs, fish, meat, nuts, oatmeal, popcorn, raisins,
seafood, seeds, sesame seeds, soy, sunflower seeds, whey, and whole
Role in Anti-Aging:
It boosts nitric oxide production in the
body, making it potentially useful in the treatment of congestive heart
failure, angina, impotence, and sexual dysfunction in women. It has
the ability to relax blood vessels, arteries flexible, seemingly acting
as a natural anticoagulant by reducing the "stickiness" of
platelets. Evidence has suggested that arginine may help regulate cholesterol
levels. These benefits suggest that arginine may help in the reduction
of the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. It is also vital
in the production of protein and the secretion of the hormones glucagon
and insulin, also stimulating the pituitary gland to release growth
hormone. Arginine can also help to increase sperm production, boost
the immune system, and aid wound and burn healing.
Decreased sperm count is the sign of deficiency of arginine.
A typical dosage of arginine is 2-3 g per day. Most do not need to
take supplementary arginine. Those suffering from serious burns, infections,
or other trauma may need extra arginine; however the dosage should be
administered by a doctor. A maximum safe level has not been established.
Possible side effects may include diarrhea and nausea.
Those with renal or hepatic insufficiency as well as those with insulin-dependent
diabetes should avoid large doses of arginine. It is to be noted that
those with allergies to eggs, milk, or wheat avoid it.
Note: L-Arginine should not be taken in combination with L-Lysine;
lysine is an antagonist of arginine. L-Arginine can interfere with the
metabolism of lysine, which can reactivate the herpes simplex virus
in humans. Those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s)
such as aspirin, and drugs that alter potassium levels, for example
ACE inhibitors, should be extra cautious ff taking the supplement arginine.
People with kidney or liver disease should consult with their physician
before taking supplementary arginine.
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’s) Leucine/Isoleucine/Valine
amino acids (BCAA’s) leucine, isoleucine, and
valine are used by the body to manufacture proteins. Muscles are known
to have a high content of BCAA’s; adequate amounts of BCAA’s
are obtained through diet, but injury may increase the need for BCAA’s
to repair sustained damage. They are found in all protein-containing
foods, but best sources are known to be red meat and dairy
Role in Anti Aging:
BCAA’s are utilized for their muscle-building properties; however,
evidence obtained through clinical trials suggests that there is no
improvement in performance, reduction in fatigue, or increase in the
body’s muscle to fat ratio. It is known that BCAA’s have
a hand in reduced symptoms of Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), and
improve the appetite of cancer patients. There are no known
deficiency markers for leucine and valine; however, a severe deficiency
of isoleucine may cause hypoglycemia.
Dosage is 1-5 g per day.
Those with kidney or liver disease should
consult their doctor before taking supplementary leucine, isoleucine,
or valine. BCAA’s
may reduce the effectiveness of anti-Parkinson’s drugs.
Cysteine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)
Cysteine is a non-essential
amino acid that is manufactured in the liver. It is obtained through
the diet from beans, brewer’s yeast,
broccoli, Brussels sprouts, dairy products, eggs, fish, garlic,
meat, nuts, onions, red peppers, seafood, seeds, soy, whey, and whole
grains. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a modified form of cysteine. NAC
helps the body make the antioxidant enzyme glutathione.
Role in Anti- Aging:
Cysteine may help in diminishing the effects of aging, protecting against
heart disease and cancer, boosting the immune system, promoting metabolism
of fats and production of muscle tissue, and aid healing after surgery.
It is known to work synergistically in combination with vitamin E and
selenium as an antioxidant. It protects against the damaging effects
of radiation, and acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke, alcohol and environmental
Studies have found that NAC is beneficial to patients with chronic
bronchitis and angina issues; preliminary evidence suggests that it
may help to prevent colon cancer. It is rumored to aid in the efficacy
of chemotherapy drugs, and reduces possible side effects, but there
is little evidence to suggest it is correct. Very high doses of NAC
are given to patients in hospital to treat acetaminophen poisoning.
Symptoms of cysteine deficiency include: apathy, pigmentation loss in
hair, edema, liver damage, muscle loss, skin lesions, weakness, fat
loss, and stunted growth in children.
levels of NAC and cysteine are said to be 250 to 1,500 mg of NAC per
day. This has been used in clinical trials with no adverse effects.
There are no known signs of toxicity from cysteine. NAC appears to be
a very safe supplement even in high doses, but an animal study
has found that 60-100 times the normal dose could cause liver injury.
Note: NAC is known to have antioxidant activity, however one study
found that daily doses of 1.2g or more increased oxidative stress.
Diabetes mellitus patients and those with allergies to eggs, milk,
or wheat should not take supplementary cysteine. People taking the drug
may experience severe headaches when taking NAC. Cysteine supplements
must be taken with vitamin C to prevent cysteine being converted to
cystine, which may form kidney or bladder stones. Those with kidney
or liver disease should consult their doctor before taking supplementary
Build up of beta-amyloid protein. Amyloid plaques are one of
the characteristic structural abnormalities found in the brains of Alzheimer
patients. The presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
is used to positively diagnose Alzheimer's disease upon death.
Medication that opposes the action of another medicine or poison
when absorbed into the blood or tissues.
Nutrient or chemical which reacts with and neutralizes oxidants,
free radicals or chemicals that release free radicals. Antioxidants
are known as free radical scavengers.
Vitamins A, C, E and some of the B vitamins, beta-carotene, selenium
and some key enzymes in your body are all known antioxidants.
Genes which inhibit cell division or proliferation; known as
tumor suppressor genes.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE)
Gene situated on chromosome 19, codes for protein in lipoproteins
that are normal constituents of blood plasma. HDL (high density lipoprotein),
LDL (low density lipoprotein), and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)
are all an apolipoprotein. There common variations (alleles) of the
APOE gene, commonly known as: e2, e3, and e4.
Programmed cell death is a when a programmed sequence of events
leads to the destruction of cells without releasing harmful substances
into the surrounding area. It is important due to the role in the body
that aids in eliminating aged cells, unnecessary cells, and unhealthy
Adenosine Triphosphate, the universal energy molecule, created
within the mitochondria of cells using the energy derived from consumed
food. All cellular activities in the body use energy released by splitting
Dying or death of a specific organ or gland.
Illness that occurs when the body is attacked by its own immune
system. Those suffering from autoimmune diseases may have unusual antibodies
circulating in their blood that target their own body tissues. They
are more common in women than in men, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
(SLE or lupus), rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and juvenile
(type 1) diabetes
Average Life Span
The average number of years that members of a population live.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
An inflammatory marker- a protein the body releases in response
to inflammation. Elevated levels of CRP in the blood are indicative
of inflammation in the body, and is normally not present in a healthy
Experimental approach to studying longevity where the lifespan
of laboratory animals have been extended by reducing calories while
the necessary level of nutrients is maintained.
Class of neurotransmitters including norepinephrine and dopamine.
Condition of sudden muscular weakness or fatigue.
Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat osteoarthritis
and rheumatoid arthritis. Research suggests it may reduce Alzheimer's
risk in persons with family history of dementia.
Stage at which a cell has stopped dividing permanently.
Central Nervous System (CNS):
The brain, spinal cord and its associated nerves.
Inadequate supply of blood to the brain due to narrowing of the
blood vessels which lead to, or are in various areas of the brain.
Parts of nervous system using acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter.
Double stranded DNA helixes.
Oxidation reaction in which undesirable bonds form between nucleic
acids (RNA and DNA) or between proteins (bit into an apple and watch
it do yellow over time, this is protein cross linking).
Fine network of branches extending from the body of a nerve,
receiving and carrying impulses into the center of a given cell.
Conversion of testosterone considered to be an aging biomarker.
Its affects are appearance of body-hair, the loss of scalp hair and the
onset of prostate gland problems.
Found in minimal amounts in the brain, known for brain enhancing
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Genetic blueprint residing in the nucleus of every cell of every
living organism. Researchers believe free radicals damage the DNA and
may be directly responsible for the aging process and cancer.
Neurotransmitter critical in motor coordination, immune function,
insulin regulation, physical energy, thinking, short term memory, emotions
such as sexual desire and autonomic nervous system balance.
Parts of nervous system which utilize dopamine as a neurotransmitter.
Scientific experiment in which neither the subject nor the researcher
know who is receiving the active substance and who receives the placebo.
Researchers that are unaware of which subjects received the active substance
then evaluate data generated from the experiment. This type of experiment
helps to eliminate personal bias from research.
This is a study where all subjects switch from an active substance
to a placebo or vice versa.
Term for the group of glands in a specific area; pituitary, thyroid,
thymus, pancreas, adrenal, testes and ovaries.
Unique class of drugs that have stimulatory properties.
Highly chemically reactive atom, molecule or molecular fragment
with a free or unpaired electron. Free radicals are produced in many
different ways; through normal metabolic processes, ultraviolet radiation
from the sun, nuclear radiation and the breakdown in the body of spoiled
fats. Free radicals have been implicated in aging, cancer, and cardiovascular
A myriad of chemical reactions that occur when a free radical
reacts with another molecule to gain an electron. Molecules that lose
an electron to the free radical then become a free radical, repeating
the process until the energy of the free radical is spent, or the reaction
is stopped by an antioxidant.
GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid)
An amino acid which acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The process in which genes are transcribed and translated into
proteins. Age-related changes in expressions of the gene account for
some of the phenomena of aging.
The process in which glucose links with proteins and causes them
to bind together, hardening tissue and leading to the complications
of diabetes and perhaps some of the physiologic problems associated with
Growth Hormone (GH)
Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. GH stimulates growth
and repair of the body as well as the activities of the immune system.
With age, GH release diminishes (also known as hGH or human growth hormone).
A finite number of divisions in which a cell is capable of dividing.
The area of the brain believed to be responsible for memory and
Latin for a “chemical messenger,” such as growth hormone,
testosterone or insulin.
Hereditary disorder characterized by mental and physical deterioration,
ultimately leading to death. Sometimes referred to as Hungtinton's chorea
due to the involuntary rapid movement of limbs (chorea), the disease
is caused by loss of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain.
A condition in which one requires more sleep than is the normal
A condition in which one requires very little sleep, akin to
Area of the brain believed to be the command center, instructing
the endocrine system.
Condition of lowered oxygen levels in the blood system. Hypoxia
promotes free radical activity in the body.
Tissue that has died due to lack of oxygen resulting from a blood
clot or blocking of an artery.
Neurotransmitter that decreases the electrochemical activity
of neurons. GABA and serotonin are inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Substances secreted by lymphocytes; their levels varying with
A change in neural function as a consequence of experience.
Brown waste material deposited in the skin and nerve cells commonly
known as “age spots.” Lipofuscin is made of free radical
damaged proteins and fats.
Deposits of lipofuscin in the skin.
White blood cells important to the immune system. Decline in
lymphocyte function in advancing age is being studied for insights into
aging and disease.
Maximum Life Span
The greatest age reached by any member of a given species.
Cell organelles that metabolize sugars into energy. Mitochondria
contains DNA, which may be damaged by high levels of free radicals produced
in the mitochondrian. They are also structures in cells that act as
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
An enzyme in the brain that breaks down certain neurotransmitters
such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.
Condition when one randomly falls asleep due to lack of oxygen
to the brain.
That which carries information to and from the central nervous
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)
A naturally occurring hormone stimulateing growth of neurons.
Tiny projection growths from each nerve cell that carries information
between the cells. A nerve cell may have over 100,000 neurites growing
out of it; each connected to other nerve cells.
A chemical that naturally occurs in the nervous system and plays
a part in its functioning.
Type of neurological disorder marked by loss of nerve cells.
For example Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's
Accumulation of twisted protein fragments inside the neuron.
Neurofibrillary tangles are one of the characteristic structural abnormalities
found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Upon autopsy,
the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are used
in positively diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.
A nerve cell.
One of the many chemicals that carry impulses between nerve cells.
A molecule, typically a protein, such as nerve growth factor
(NGF), that promotes nerve cell growth, repair, and survival.
Is an active part of Vitamin B3.
Word developed by Dr. Giurgea to describe the new class of drugs
that act as cognitive enhancers with minimal side effects or toxicity,
from the Greek words noos, meaning mind and tropein, meaning toward.
Norepinephrine (also known as Noradrenaline)
An excitatory neurotransmitter involved in alertness, concentration,
aggression and motivation, among other behaviors. Norepinephrine is
made in the brain from the amino acid phenylalanine.
Chemical reaction in which an electron is taken from a molecule
of an oxidized substance.
The gland responsible for insulin production.
Chronic disease of the central nervous system caused by lowered
levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter dopamine. Symptoms include
muscular tremors and weakness.
The process initiated by sunlight through which the skin becomes
drier and loses elasticity. Photoaging is being studied for clues to
aging due to its similarity in normal aging on certain skin cells.
Gland at the base of the brain, that secretes several different
hormones involved in key metabolic processes.
Inert compound usually given to a portion of subjects in a scientific
experiment in order to distinguish the psychological effects of the
experiment from the physiological effects of the drug being tested.
A chemical that can be converted by the body into another is
a precursor of the latter chemical.
The “grandmother” hormone produced in the mitochondria that
is the base “raw-material” for all the steroids and neuro-steroids.
Genes that promote cell division or proliferation; also known
Molecules that are made up of amino acids arranged in a specific
order determined by genetic code. Specific proteins, like the enzymes
which protect against free radicals are being studied extensively by
Sites on the outside of cells where particular messenger molecules
such as hormones may attach. Attachment to the receptor site causes corresponding
changes inside the cell.
Regrowth of cells, tissues, organs or limbs.
Ribonucleic acid, that which carries instructions from DNA in
the nucleus to cell polyribosomes, where proteins are made according
to the RNA instructions.
Aging related loss of mental faculties.
Reduction and decline of a gland's output over age.
Inhibitory neurotransmitter required for sleep.
Neurotransmitter that increases electro-chemical activity in
the nerve cells. Norepinephrine is a known stimulatory neurotransmitter.
A rupture in the blood vessel of the brain, often with disastrous
effects depending on where the rupture occurs.
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Zinc, copper or manganese containing enzyme which reacts with
superoxide radicals to convert them to less dangerous chemical entities.
A free radical known to play a central role in arthritis and
The gap between nerve cells.
Compounds are combined and their effects are more than the sum
of their individual effects; the compounds are said to have positive
synergy. Many nootropic compounds have positive synergy effects with
each other, they become synergistic.
Throughout the entire body.
Repeated DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes; telomeres
shorten each time a cell divides.
Master gland of the immune system located behind the breastbone.
The gland located in the center of the brain responsible (amongst
other things) for temperature regulation.
Poisons- all matter, including water and oxygen is toxic in sufficiently
A class of fats found in the bloodstream.